If you do not have participation rights in a discussion you will not be able to directly create claims. However, if you follow the same steps as for Creating a Claim you will be able to create a suggested claim, which can be accepted by any Admin of the discussion. Until a suggested claim is accepted it is only visible to you, and Admins of the discussion.
When you’ve suggested a claim, you can add additional suggestions under that claim - both pros and cons. You can also move your suggestion (see: Moving/Copying a Claim) to another location, if you later realise there’s somewhere it would fit better.
Admins can accept suggestions immediately; or comment on them to discuss them with you and/or other Admins - for example, to coordinate fixing an issue before accepting the claim.
When your suggested claim is accepted or an Admin has replied, you will receive a notification. Until your suggestion is accepted, you can edit it (see: Editing a Claim) or comment on it (see: Commenting on a Claim).